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omega-6脂肪家族中的花生四烯酸(AA)具有兩面性。毫無疑問,它對大腦功能的正常運行起著重要作用,但如果在體內含量過高,則會使炎症惡化。花生四烯酸可以直接從肉類和奶製品中攝取,也可間接從亞油酸或GLA中攝取。醫學界推薦後者,這是因為亞油酸或GLA在產生花生四烯酸的同時,可以產生一種緩解炎症的抗炎物質。

換句話說,最好通過食用種子或種子油來使身體自身合成花生四烯酸,而不是通過食用大量的肉和奶製品獲取。

富含omega-3和omega-6脂肪酸的食物

我們已經知道,含omega-3脂肪酸最多的種子是亞麻子,此外大麻子和南瓜子中的含量也很豐富。儘管人體可以將亞麻酸轉化成EPA和DHA,但魚類,尤其是深海冷水魚,仍是攝取EPA和DHA的最好、最直接的來源。這就是常食魚的日本人體內的omega-3脂肪酸含量是美國人體內平均含量的3倍的原因。那些食用很多種子的素食主義者體內的omega-3脂肪酸含量也是美國人的兩倍。

含有omega-6脂肪酸最多的種子是大麻子、南瓜子、葵花子、紅花子、芝麻以及玉米粒。核桃、大豆和麥芽中也富含omega-6脂肪酸。

這樣,你便知道應該吃什麼以攝入合適的必需脂肪酸了吧?總而言之,不外乎三種攝取途徑:食用種子和魚類;食用種子油(它含有必需脂肪酸,但無法提供種子中含有的其他營養物質如礦物質等);或者是補充精煉魚油和種子油,如亞麻油、月見草油。

種子和魚類

如果你想通過食用種子來補充omega脂肪酸,那麼取1份芝麻、1份葵花子、1份南瓜子,加上3份亞麻子,混合放入密封的罐子裡。將罐子放入冰箱,避光,避熱,不要直接暴露於空氣中。每天早晨取1勺子粒,研磨成粉,混入早餐中食用,這便可保證你每日攝取足量的必需脂肪酸。此外,最好每週至少食用兩次100克以上的含omega脂肪酸豐富的魚類。

種子油

如果你想通過食用種子油來攝取omega脂肪酸,最好的方法是食用omega-3和omega-6比例為1:1的種子油。冷壓加工的、冷藏存放的有機油是你的最佳選擇。你每天需要攝入1湯匙油,可以單獨食用,也可拌入沙拉及其他食物中共同食用,但要注意千萬不要加熱。大麻子油是僅次於這種油的最佳選擇,它含有19%的α-亞麻酸(omega-3)、57%的亞油酸和2%的GLA(omega-6)。

直接補充必需脂肪酸

很多人需要直接補充必需脂肪酸,而不是從食物中攝取。

要補充omega-6脂肪酸,你最好補充琉璃苣油或是月見草油。琉璃苣油可以為你提供更多的GLA,普通人一般每日需要攝入至少100克GLA。

要補充omega-3脂肪酸,魚油是你的首選物質。普通人每天至少需要200克EPA和200克DHA或者400克二者的混合物。

所以,要補充omega脂肪酸,或者每天食用一粒GLA膠囊和一粒富含EPA和DHA的魚油膠囊,或者食用包含EPA、DHA和GLA三種成分的營養膠囊,每天兩粒。https://googleads.g.doubleclick.net/pagead/ads?client=ca-pub-6865528665029394&output=html&h=280&slotname=desktop_article_center1&adk=4233778805&adf=3134570923&pi=t.ma~as.desktop_article_cen_&w=336&lmt=1635508028&psa=0&format=336×280&url=https%3A%2F%2Fb3110349.pixnet.net%2Fblog%2Fpost%2F22812887&flash=0&wgl=1&adsid=ChAI8LfuiwYQ87n-le7HkcoWEjkANHDGIKPSLqoo1XqgkJ-y6mdt96T98Du9yxYWPO5_An4JcY5sdPbv_ps7p7G2E6xAMSVTELQ42yY&uach=WyJXaW5kb3dzIiwiMTAuMC4wIiwieDg2IiwiIiwiOTQuMC45OTIuNTAiLFtdLG51bGwsbnVsbCwiNjQiXQ..&dt=1635508027391&bpp=12&bdt=5381&idt=748&shv=r20211026&mjsv=m202110250101&ptt=9&saldr=aa&abxe=1&cookie=ID%3Dd83921fbd70bad8e%3AT%3D1635508025%3AS%3DALNI_Mbz0sD6HCG8LCom3-9XJPnG_2tm2Q&correlator=3465213958449&frm=20&pv=2&ga_vid=1045201540.1635508025&ga_sid=1635508027&ga_hid=1401715709&ga_fc=1&ga_cid=324508141.1635508025&u_tz=-240&u_his=4&u_h=709&u_w=1260&u_ah=676&u_aw=1260&u_cd=24&adx=274&ady=1677&biw=1244&bih=605&scr_x=0&scr_y=0&eid=21065725&oid=2&pvsid=2576495706147466&pem=661&wsm=3&ref=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F&eae=0&fc=896&brdim=0%2C0%2C0%2C0%2C1260%2C0%2C1260%2C676%2C1260%2C605&vis=1&rsz=%7C%7CoEebr%7C&abl=CS&pfx=0&fu=0&bc=31&jar=2021-10-14-03&ifi=3&uci=a!3&btvi=1&fsb=1&xpc=ijt1PHAHXV&p=https%3A//b3110349.pixnet.net&dtd=802

適量的必需脂肪酸能夠改善大腦功能,維持人體健康。如果上文中必需脂肪酸問卷的許多症狀都出現在你身上,那麼你應該每日加倍攝取必需脂肪酸,直到那些症狀減輕並消失。

綜述本章,我們向讀者介紹了必需脂肪酸對大腦的重要作用以及如何攝取足夠的必需脂肪酸,下面是幾條指導原則:

食用種子和堅果 含有必需脂肪酸最豐富的種子是亞麻子、大麻子、南瓜子、葵花子和芝麻。最好的使用方法是先將這些種子研磨成粉狀,然後混合到麵包、湯和沙拉中一起食用。

食用深海冷水肉食性魚類 每週食用兩2~3次鮭魚、鯖魚、鯡魚、金槍魚會為你提供足夠的omega-3脂肪酸。

食用冷壓加工的種子油 拌沙拉或其他蔬菜食用,不可加熱。

不吃或儘量少吃油炸食品和加工食品,少攝入肉類和蛋類中的飽和脂肪酸。

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